CWNA Chapter 1 – Wireless Standards, Organizations and Fundamentals

My Notes from chapter 1 of the CWNA study guide

Standard Organisations

Federal Communication Commission (FCC)

  • Regulatory body for the United States for Radio, TV, wire, satellite and cable.
  • Set Rules for what users can do with wireless around:
    • Frequency
    • Bandwidth
    • Maximum power of the intentional radiator (IR)
    • Max equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP)
    • Use (indoor / outdoor)
    • Spectrum sharing rules

International Telecommunication Union Radio Communication Sector (ITU-R)

  • Strives to ensure interference free communication on land, air and sea
  • United Nations Tasked the ITU-R with Global Spectrum Management.
  • Broken down into 5 administrative regions and 3 radio regulatory regions

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

  • Responsible for the creating the standard of how we communicate
  • Best known to IT for its LAN standard the 802 project

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

  • Goal to make the internet work better
  • Known for producing RFCs
  • Many of the protocol standards, best current practices and informational documents produced by the IETF affect WLAN Security

Wi-Fi Alliance (originally named Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA))

  • Responsible for ensuring Wireless interoperability certification programs
  • The Wi-Fi certification programs are:
    • WMM QOS  mechanisms
    • Helps conserve battery power for devices using Wi-Fi by managing the time the client spends in sleep mode
  • Wi-Fi Protected Setup
    • Simplified and automatic WPA and WPA2 security configs for home and small business.
  • Wi-Fi Direct
    • Enables devices to connect directly without the use of an access point.
  • Converged Wireless Group-RF Profile
    • Defines the performance metrics for Wi-Fi and cellular radios in a converged handset to help ensure that both technologies perform well in the presence of the other.
  • Voice Personal
    • Enhanced support for voice applications in residential or small business Wi-Fi networks. Single AP
  • Voice Enterprise
    • Voice QOS highest priority (Access Category voice AC_VO)
    • Seamless roaming within Enterprise Wi-Fi network (multiple Aps)
  • Tunnelled Direct Link Setup
    • Allows devices to establish a secure link to each other after they have joined a Wi-Fi network
  • Passpoint
    • Designed to revolutionize the end user experience when connecting to a Wi-Fi hotspot. Uses EAP to Auth
    • Also known as Hotspot 2.0
  • WMM-Admission Control
    • Allows Wi-Fi networks to manage network traffic based upon channel conditions, network load and type of traffic (Voice, Video, best effort data or background data)
  • IBSS with Wi-Fi Protected Setup
    • Provides easy config and strong security for ad hoc Wi-Fi networks.
    • Designed for devices with limited user interfaces
    • Feature easy push button or PIN setup, task-orientated short term connections and dynamic networks that can be established anywhere
  • Miracast
    • Seamlessly integrates the display of streaming video between devices.
    • Core Technology and Security
    • Wi-Fi Multimedia
    • WMM Power Save

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

  • A global nongovernmental organisation that identifies business, government and society needs and develops standards in partnership with the sectors the will put them to use.
  • Responsible for the OSI Model

Communication Fundamentals

Carrier Signals

  • Is a waveform that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.
  • The carrier signal is usually a higher frequency than the input signal

Keying Methods

  • A Keying method is what changes the signal into a carrier signal.
  • Amplitude-Shift Keying (ASK)
    • Varies the amplitude or height of a signal to represent the binary data
    • When noise occurs it normally affects amplitude of the signal meaning this keying method is more susceptible to signal loss


  • Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK)
    • Varies the frequency of the signal.
    • One frequency can represent the 0 bits and another can represent the 1 bits.

Frequency-Shift Keying.png

  • Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)
    • Varies the phase of the signal
    • A phase change can represent the 0 and no change in phase can represent a 1


Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)

So the first exam I am undertaking is the CWNA, I have just ordered the book By David Coleman which should turn up in the next 3-10 days I have been advised.


Hopefully work commitments don’t get crazy over the next few months and allow me to schedule and pass the exam before Christmas!! Can you believe that its less than 90 days until the fat man comes, where has this year gone.

Continue reading “Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)”