My Notes from chapter 1 of the CWNA study guide
Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
- Regulatory body for the United States for Radio, TV, wire, satellite and cable.
- Set Rules for what users can do with wireless around:
- Maximum power of the intentional radiator (IR)
- Max equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP)
- Use (indoor / outdoor)
- Spectrum sharing rules
International Telecommunication Union Radio Communication Sector (ITU-R)
- Strives to ensure interference free communication on land, air and sea
- United Nations Tasked the ITU-R with Global Spectrum Management.
- Broken down into 5 administrative regions and 3 radio regulatory regions
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
- Responsible for the creating the standard of how we communicate
- Best known to IT for its LAN standard the 802 project
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
- Goal to make the internet work better
- Known for producing RFCs
- Many of the protocol standards, best current practices and informational documents produced by the IETF affect WLAN Security
Wi-Fi Alliance (originally named Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA))
- Responsible for ensuring Wireless interoperability certification programs
- The Wi-Fi certification programs are:
- WMM QOS mechanisms
- Helps conserve battery power for devices using Wi-Fi by managing the time the client spends in sleep mode
- Wi-Fi Protected Setup
- Simplified and automatic WPA and WPA2 security configs for home and small business.
- Wi-Fi Direct
- Enables devices to connect directly without the use of an access point.
- Converged Wireless Group-RF Profile
- Defines the performance metrics for Wi-Fi and cellular radios in a converged handset to help ensure that both technologies perform well in the presence of the other.
- Voice Personal
- Enhanced support for voice applications in residential or small business Wi-Fi networks. Single AP
- Voice Enterprise
- Voice QOS highest priority (Access Category voice AC_VO)
- Seamless roaming within Enterprise Wi-Fi network (multiple Aps)
- Tunnelled Direct Link Setup
- Allows devices to establish a secure link to each other after they have joined a Wi-Fi network
- Designed to revolutionize the end user experience when connecting to a Wi-Fi hotspot. Uses EAP to Auth
- Also known as Hotspot 2.0
- WMM-Admission Control
- Allows Wi-Fi networks to manage network traffic based upon channel conditions, network load and type of traffic (Voice, Video, best effort data or background data)
- IBSS with Wi-Fi Protected Setup
- Provides easy config and strong security for ad hoc Wi-Fi networks.
- Designed for devices with limited user interfaces
- Feature easy push button or PIN setup, task-orientated short term connections and dynamic networks that can be established anywhere
- Seamlessly integrates the display of streaming video between devices.
- Core Technology and Security
- Wi-Fi Multimedia
- WMM Power Save
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
- A global nongovernmental organisation that identifies business, government and society needs and develops standards in partnership with the sectors the will put them to use.
- Responsible for the OSI Model
- Is a waveform that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.
- The carrier signal is usually a higher frequency than the input signal
- A Keying method is what changes the signal into a carrier signal.
- Amplitude-Shift Keying (ASK)
- Varies the amplitude or height of a signal to represent the binary data
- When noise occurs it normally affects amplitude of the signal meaning this keying method is more susceptible to signal loss
- Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK)
- Varies the frequency of the signal.
- One frequency can represent the 0 bits and another can represent the 1 bits.
- Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)
- Varies the phase of the signal
- A phase change can represent the 0 and no change in phase can represent a 1