CWNA Chapter 1 – Wireless Standards, Organizations and Fundamentals

My Notes from chapter 1 of the CWNA study guide

Standard Organisations

Federal Communication Commission (FCC)

  • Regulatory body for the United States for Radio, TV, wire, satellite and cable.
  • Set Rules for what users can do with wireless around:
    • Frequency
    • Bandwidth
    • Maximum power of the intentional radiator (IR)
    • Max equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP)
    • Use (indoor / outdoor)
    • Spectrum sharing rules

International Telecommunication Union Radio Communication Sector (ITU-R)

  • Strives to ensure interference free communication on land, air and sea
  • United Nations Tasked the ITU-R with Global Spectrum Management.
  • Broken down into 5 administrative regions and 3 radio regulatory regions

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

  • Responsible for the creating the standard of how we communicate
  • Best known to IT for its LAN standard the 802 project

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

  • Goal to make the internet work better
  • Known for producing RFCs
  • Many of the protocol standards, best current practices and informational documents produced by the IETF affect WLAN Security

Wi-Fi Alliance (originally named Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA))

  • Responsible for ensuring Wireless interoperability certification programs
  • The Wi-Fi certification programs are:
    • WMM QOS  mechanisms
    • Helps conserve battery power for devices using Wi-Fi by managing the time the client spends in sleep mode
  • Wi-Fi Protected Setup
    • Simplified and automatic WPA and WPA2 security configs for home and small business.
  • Wi-Fi Direct
    • Enables devices to connect directly without the use of an access point.
  • Converged Wireless Group-RF Profile
    • Defines the performance metrics for Wi-Fi and cellular radios in a converged handset to help ensure that both technologies perform well in the presence of the other.
  • Voice Personal
    • Enhanced support for voice applications in residential or small business Wi-Fi networks. Single AP
  • Voice Enterprise
    • Voice QOS highest priority (Access Category voice AC_VO)
    • Seamless roaming within Enterprise Wi-Fi network (multiple Aps)
  • Tunnelled Direct Link Setup
    • Allows devices to establish a secure link to each other after they have joined a Wi-Fi network
  • Passpoint
    • Designed to revolutionize the end user experience when connecting to a Wi-Fi hotspot. Uses EAP to Auth
    • Also known as Hotspot 2.0
  • WMM-Admission Control
    • Allows Wi-Fi networks to manage network traffic based upon channel conditions, network load and type of traffic (Voice, Video, best effort data or background data)
  • IBSS with Wi-Fi Protected Setup
    • Provides easy config and strong security for ad hoc Wi-Fi networks.
    • Designed for devices with limited user interfaces
    • Feature easy push button or PIN setup, task-orientated short term connections and dynamic networks that can be established anywhere
  • Miracast
    • Seamlessly integrates the display of streaming video between devices.
    • Core Technology and Security
    • Wi-Fi Multimedia
    • WMM Power Save

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

  • A global nongovernmental organisation that identifies business, government and society needs and develops standards in partnership with the sectors the will put them to use.
  • Responsible for the OSI Model

Communication Fundamentals

Carrier Signals

  • Is a waveform that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.
  • The carrier signal is usually a higher frequency than the input signal

Keying Methods

  • A Keying method is what changes the signal into a carrier signal.
  • Amplitude-Shift Keying (ASK)
    • Varies the amplitude or height of a signal to represent the binary data
    • When noise occurs it normally affects amplitude of the signal meaning this keying method is more susceptible to signal loss

amplitude-shift-keying

  • Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK)
    • Varies the frequency of the signal.
    • One frequency can represent the 0 bits and another can represent the 1 bits.

Frequency-Shift Keying.png

  • Phase-Shift Keying (PSK)
    • Varies the phase of the signal
    • A phase change can represent the 0 and no change in phase can represent a 1

phase-shift-keying